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Jose Roberts
Jose Roberts

Metallic Element

A metallic lip cream that glides on smoothly and evenly for intensely pigmented, glamorous lips with a chromatic finish. Provides max coverage yet feels lightweight and comfortable. This non-drying formula contains Shea Butter, Grapeseed Oil and Vitamin E to moisturize lips instead of drying them out.

metallic element

There are currently 118 known elements on the periodic table, many of which are classified as either a metal or nonmetal. The former are found on the left side of the periodic table, whereas the latter are found on the right side of the periodic table. Aside from their placement on the periodic table, though, there are several key differences between metal and nonmetal elements.

By definition, a metal element is an element that form positive ions and has metallic bonds. Most elements on the periodic table are metals. Examples of metal elements include iron, copper, silver, mercury, lead, aluminum, gold, platinum, zinc, nickel and tin.

Now that you know the basic definitions of metal and nonmetal elements, you might be wondering how they differ. While each element on the periodic table has its own unique properties, all metal elements generally share some common characteristics, and all nonmetal elements also share some common characteristics.

well, Wikipedia says "Metals are described as malleable (can be beaten into sheets) and ductile (can be pulled out into wires). This is because of the ability of the atoms to roll over each other into new positions without breaking the metallic bond."

Non-metallic materials offer a range of physical and chemical properties, including having low thermal and electrical conductivity, making them good insulators as well as offering a high resistance to chemicals and corrosion. They can, however, be brittle and tend to have a low melting or boiling point. When applied with stress, non-metallic materials will often show an elastic, plastic, or viscous response.

Fourteen elements are nearly always included in the list of non-metal elements, with up to about nine more elements sometimes added, including gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, chlorine, argon, krypton, xenon and radon), a liquid (bromine), and some solids (carbon, phosphorous, sulphur, selenium, and iodine). All of these elements act as the basic building blocks for organic compounds and display a range of properties in terms of their atomic and chemical behaviour.

Hydrogen is classified as being a non-metal, but it displays unique properties that differ from other non-metals and make it hard to categorise. Naturally exiting as a gas, hydrogen forms covalent bonds like other non-metals, but it can also shed its single electron and form positively charged ions, like a metal. This unique mix of properties led the physicists Hillard Huntington and Eugene Wigner to predict in 1935 that hydrogen would condense to a metallic liquid or solid under extremely high temperatures or pressures. This phase of hydrogen is predicted to behave like metal and become a good conductor of electricity and heat. It is believed that liquid metallic hydrogen may exist in the core of gas giant planets like Saturn and Jupiter, which would explain the powerful magnetic fields of these planets. However, for now at least, hydrogen remains a non-metal.

From a chemical standpoint, non-metallic materials can be divided into covalent and ionic materials. These include gases, liquids and solid materials and can be reactive materials, halogens or noble gases.

Non-metallic elements in the periodic table include hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulphur, silicon, boron, tellurium and selenium. They also include halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine) and noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon).

Covalent bonds are when two elements share valence electrons until a complete shell is formed. Covalent compounds include ethanol, glucose and carbon dioxide. Covalently bonded compounds share electrons between the elements within them to achieve a stable electron configuration and tend to show the widest variation in molecular geometry. Covalent compounds also take on shapes that minimise the amount of electrostatic repulsion between electron pairs.

Ionic bonds form with one element taking electrons from another to create a cation and an anion. Oppositely charged ions attract one another, joining together to form an ionic compound. These compounds include table salt, carbonate, sulphate and potassium chloride. Most ionic compounds arrange themselves into a lattice structure and tend to form between elements with differing electro-negatives (ΔEN > 2.0).

While not all non-metallic compounds have low melting and boiling points, they do tend to have lower melting and boiling points than metals, which is why many non-metals are gaseous at room temperature.

Non-metallic materials are widely used across a range of industries for a wealth of applications, from composites used in aerospace to polymer pipes used to transport fluids and liquids. Rubber, vinyl and ceramic are all commonly used non-metallic materials, as well as adhesives and sealants.

It is estimated that multiple sclerosis (MS) affects 35,000 Brazilians and 2.5 million individuals worldwide. Many studies have suggested a possible role of metallic elements in the etiology of MS, but their concentration in the blood of MS patients is nonetheless little investigated in Brazil. In this work, these elements were studied through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), whose analysis provides a tool to quantify the concentrations of metal elements in the blood samples of individuals with neurodegenerative disorders. This study aimed to compare the concentration of metallic elements in blood samples from patients with MS and healthy individuals. Blood was collected from 30 patients with multiple sclerosis and compared with the control group. Blood samples were digested in closed vessels using a microwave and ICP-MS was used to determine the concentrations of 12 metallic elements (Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn). In MS patients, we observed a reduction in the concentrations of beryllium, copper, chromium, cobalt, nickel, magnesium and iron. The mean concentration of lead in blood was significantly elevated in the MS group. However, no difference was observed in the concentrations of Mo, Ba, Ca and Zn in blood samples from MS patients and the control group. According to our data, there is a possible role for the concentrations of 8 of the 12 evaluated metallic elements in multiple sclerosis. Abnormalities in transition metals levels in biological matrices have been reported in several neurological diseases.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease with an etiology that may involve genetic and environmental factors1. MS affects over 400,000 people in the United States, 35,000 Brazilians and 2.5 million worldwide, making it a pressing issue in healthcare2. It is recognized worldwide, however, that reported incidence rates and prevalence vary considerably between regions and populations, indicating that environmental and climatic factors can possibly also contribute towards etiology3,4. Groups that have been identified as the highest risk for the development of MS, are those involved in paper manufacturing, leather, wood processing, welding, metal, printing, electronics, textiles and agriculture5. Environmental agents are believed to trigger an inflammatory process and, consequently, an autoimmune process to myelin proteins in individuals with a genetic predisposition, with a consequent loss of neurological function6,7. Exposure and the subsequent absorption of toxic materials such as metallic nanoparticles (NPs) and metallic dioxides onto human membranes have been reported as environmental agents and, as such, contribute to oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of neurological diseases8,9,10. Therefore, examining the concentration of the metallic NPs as environmental agents can help to explore one of the possible causes of MS.

The investigation into metallic elements in previous studies has been based on experimental disease models, post-mortem materials, in vitro conditions and in vivo tissue (hair or blood cells), all of which have pointed to the accumulation or depletion of trace elements in the body9. However, there is still great controversy, because these studies have considered a small number of elements and are hampered by methodological limitations in terms of analytical quality, such as a reduced number of samples and the different techniques applied11. There is a lack of information concerning exposure to heavy metals as potential etiologic factor for MS, and their concentrations in blood of MS patients have been little investigated in Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the concentration of metals by ICP-MS, in the blood of patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls, in order to investigate the role of these metal elements as environmental cofactors for multiple sclerosis.

Differences between the reference and experimentally determined values obtained for the concentrations of metallic elements present in the analyzed references were less than 20% for all references, ensuring the correct quantification of the analysis by ICP-MS.

We can note that the literature suggests a possible relationship between the imbalance of metal levels and multiple sclerosis. In our results, only the mean concentration of lead in whole blood was significantly elevated in the MS group. However, we observed a reduction in the concentrations of all other analyzed elements in MS patients. Beryllium, copper, chromium, cobalt, nickel, magnesium and iron had a statistically significant reduction, but there were no significant differences for the concentrations of Mo, Cs, Ba, Ca, Se and Zn in blood samples from patients and the control group.

We noted that all concentrations were lower for the patient group, except for Pb. Our results for Cu, Fe and Zn agree with those observed by Alimonti et al.9, who showed a decreased concentration in the blood of MS patients. Pawlitzki et al.18 also found lower serum zinc levels in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, Janghorbani et al.13 and Visconti et al.19 found an increase in the levels of these metallic elements in the serum of MS subjects. Ours results showed that the concentrations of copper, magnesium, chromium and nickel also were lower in the MS group. Similar findings were found by Iranmanesh et al.20, who noted that Cu levels decreased in the serum of MS subjects, and by Forte et al.17 who showed a relative Mg insufficiency in the same group. Forte et al.17 also observed that Mg concentrations were reduced in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 18 patients with multiple sclerosis. 041b061a72


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