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The Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) mechanism and the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) are the two most important and widely used distributed object systems. Each system has its own features and shortcomings. Both are being used in the industry for various applications ranging from e-commerce to health care. Selecting which of these two distribution mechanisms to use for a project is a tough task. This article presents an overview of RMI and CORBA, and more importantly it shows how to develop a useful application for downloading files from remote hosts. It then:
A distributed object-based system is a collection of objects that isolates the requesters of services (clients) from the providers of services (servers) by a well-defined encapsulating interface. In other words, clients are isolated from the implementation of services as data representations and executable code. This is one of the main differences that distinguishes the distributed object-based model from the pure client/server model.
This application allows a client to transfer (or download) any type of file (plain text or binary) from a remote machine. The first step is to define a remote interface that specifies the signatures of the methods to be provided by the server and invoked by clients.
The remote interface for the file download application is shown in Code Sample 1. The interface FileInterface provides one method downloadFile that takes a String argument (the name of the file) and returns the data of the file as an array of bytes.
The next step is to develop a client. The client remotely invokes any methods specified in the remote interface ( FileInterface). To do so however, the client must first obtain a reference to the remote object from the RMI registry. Once a reference is obtained, the downloadFile method is invoked. A client implementation is shown in Code Sample 4. In this implementation, the client accepts two arguments at the command line: the first one is the name of the file to be downloaded and the second one is the address of the machine from which the file is to be downloaded, which is the machine that is running the file server.
where fileName is the file to be downloaded and machineName is the machine where the file is located (the same machine runs the file server). If everything goes ok then the client exists and the file downloaded is on the local machine.
To run the client we mentioned that you need a copy of the interface and stub. A more appropriate way to do this is to use RMI dynamic class loading. The idea is you do not need copies of the interface and the stub. Instead, they can be located in a shared directory for the server and the client, and whenever a stub or a skeleton is needed, it is downloaded automatically by the RMI class loader. To do this you run the client, for example, using the following command: java -Djava.rmi.server.codebase= FileClient fileName machineName.
When defining a CORBA interface, think about the type of operations that the server will support. In the file transfer application, the client will invoke a method to download a file. Code Sample 5 shows the interface for FileInterface. Data is a new type introduced using the typedef keyword. A sequence in IDL is similar to an array except that a sequence does not have a fixed size. An octet is an 8-bit quantity that is equivalent to the Java type byte.
Note that the downloadFile method takes one parameter of type string that is declared in. IDL defines three parameter-passing modes: in (for input from client to server), out (for output from server to client), and inout (used for both input and output).
Now, we provide an implementation to the downloadFile method. This implementation is known as a servant, and as you can see from Code Sample 6, the class FileServant extends the _FileInterfaceImplBase class to specify that this servant is a CORBA object.
The next step is to develop a client. An implementation is shown in Code Sample 8. Once a reference to the naming service has been obtained, it can be used to access the naming service and find other services (for example the FileTransfer service). When the FileTransfer service is found, the downloadFile method is invoked.
In the file transfer application, the client (in both cases RMI and CORBA) needs to know the name of the file to be downloaded in advance. No methods are provided to list the files available on the server. As an exercise, you may want to enhance the application by adding another method that lists the files available on the server. Also, instead of using a command-line client you may want to develop a GUI-based client. When the client starts up, it invokes a method on the server to get a list of files then pops up a menu displaying the files available where the user would be able to select one or more files to be downloaded.
cobra-cli is a command line program to generate cobra applications and command files.It will bootstrap your application scaffolding to rapidlydevelop a Cobra-based application. It is the easiest way to incorporate Cobra into your application.
Package cobra is a commander providing a simple interface to create powerful modern CLI interfaces.In addition to providing an interface, Cobra simultaneously provides a controller to organize your application code.
The documentation set for this product strives to use bias-free language. For the purposes of this documentation set, bias-free is defined as language that does not imply discrimination based on age, disability, gender, racial identity, ethnic identity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and intersectionality. Exceptions may be present in the documentation due to language that is hardcoded in the user interfaces of the product software, language used based on RFP documentation, or language that is used by a referenced third-party product. Learn more about how Cisco is using Inclusive Language.
VSingle is a HTTP bot which executes arbitrary code from a remote network. It also downloads and executes plugins. Once launched, this malware runs Explorer and executes its main code through DLL injection. (Some samples do not perform DLL injection.) The main code contains the following PDB path:
[Base64 data] contains the Base64-encoded value of "[IP address][Windows version number][version]". As a response to this request, AES-encrypted data including commands is downloaded from the server. The encryption key is specified in Set-Cookie header in the response. VSingle also works with authentication proxy (Basic authentication). If the malware contains proxy settings, it can communicate in proxy environment as follows:
Plugins are temporarily saved in %TEMP% folder and then executed except for the shellcode ones; They are saved in %TEMP% folder but loaded and executed on memory. When the command number 6 (sending malware information) is selected, the data in Figure 3 is sent. As for the version number, 4.1.1, 3.0.1 and others have been confirmed in addition to 1.0.1. It is possible that this number indicates some sort of identifier, rather than its malware version.
ValeforBeta is a HTTP bot developed in Delphi, and its functions are even simpler than those of VSingle. Besides arbitrary code execution from remote network, it just uploads and downloads files. The next sections describe ValeforBeta's configuration and communication format.
Although it is a HTTP POST request, it does not contain any data to send. The Base64-encoded data after "JSESSIONID=" in the Cookie header contains the information of an infected host. Below is the format of Base64-encoded data.
[data] contains the version information of the malware and the IP address of the infected hosts. (See request type "0" in Appendix A for more details.) If the response from the server is "200 OK", the next request is sent (Request type "1"). The C2 server sends data including commands. The result of the command execution is sent as a part of the HTTP POST request, disguised as a BMP file. Figure 5 shows part of the code to send the command execution result.
A long code is a standard phone number (10-digit in many countries) used to send SMS messages. A long code is not always required to send an SMS message as countries support different types of origination identities for SMS. You can use dedicated long codes with Amazon SNS by registering for long codes in the Amazon Pinpoint console. For instructions on how to purchase and use long codes, visit Requesting Long Codes in Amazon SNS documentation.
A toll-free number is a 10-digit number that begins with one of the following three-digit codes: 800, 888, 877, 866, 855, 844, or 833. Currently Amazon SNS only supports SMS-enabled tol